Function of HIV Vpr
Viral protein R (Vpr) is an accessory protein which plays multiple functions to enhance HIV-1 replications in the non-dividing cells (e.g. macrophages) .
Vpr plays multiple functions such as the modulation of viral reverse transcription, the nuclear import of HIV-1 pre-integration complex, the transactivation of HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter, the induction of apoptosis and G2 cell cycle arrest (see review ).
Vpr is incorporated in HIV particles .
Zhao RY, Li G, Bukrinsky MI: Vpr-host interactions during HIV-1 viral life cycle. Journal of neuroimmune pharmacology : the official journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology 2011, 6(2):216-229.(Download Article)
Cohen EA, Dehni G, Sodroski JG, Haseltine WA: Human immunodeficiency virus vpr product is a virion-associated regulatory protein. Journal of virology 1990, 64(6):3097-3099.(Download Article)
(1) Reference sequence for HIV-1 Vpr
1 10 20 30 40 50
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MEQAPEDQGP QREPHNEWTL ELLEELKNEA VRHFPRIWLH GLGQHIYETY
51 60 70 80 90 96
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GDTWAGVEAI IRILQQLLFI HFRIGCRHSR IGVTRQRRAR NGASRS
(2) Coloring scheme for above amino acids
Amino acids with hydrophobic side chains (normally buried inside the protein core):
A - Ala - Alanine
I - Ile - Isoleucine
L - Leu - Leucine
M - Met - Methionine
V - Val - Valine
Amino acids with polar uncharged side chains (may participate in hydrogen bonds):
N - Asn - Asparagine
Q - Gln - Glutamine
S - Ser - Serine
T - Thr - Threonine
Amino acids with positive charged side chains:
H - His - Histidine
K - Lys - Lysine
R - Arg - Arginine
Amino acids with negative charged side chains:
D - Asp - Aspartic acid
E - Glu - Glutamic acid
Amino acids with aromatic side chains:
F - Phe - Phenylalanine
Y - Tyr - Tyrosine
W - Trp - Tryptophan
Cysteine: C - Cys - Cysteine
Glycine: G - Gly - Glycine
Proline: P - Pro - Proline
Amino acid variations at HIV-1 Vpr
Here, we visualize the prevalence of amino acid variations at the HIV-1 Vpr from HIV-1 subtype B.
Protocal of our sequence collection
For HIV-1 subtype B, one sequence per patient was extracted from HIV Los Alamos database (www.hiv.lanl.gov/).
We removed misclassified sequences or sequences with hypermutations, stop codons, ambiguous nucleotides, which were described in our article .
We removed sequences conferred partial or full resistance to any of the Vpr inhibitors, RT inhibitors and Vpr inhibitors using HIVdb V6.0 .
Our sequence dataset of HIV-1 subtype B Vpr included 4725 sequences. In the following picture, HXB2 indices of individual proteins are shown on top of the colored bars. A consensus amino acid at each position is shown beneath the colored bar. Natural variations are shown below the consensus amino acids; proportions (%) are colored red if they were more than 5%; blue otherwise.
HIV-1 protein interaction patterns.
Please cite our article:
Guangdi Li, Supinya Piampongsant, Nuno Rodrigues Faria, Arnout Voet, Andrea-Clemencia Pineda-Peña, Ricardo Khouri, Philippe Lemey, Anne-Mieke Vandamme, Kristof Theys. An integrated map of HIV genome-wide variation from a population perspective. Retrovirology 12, 18, doi:10.1186/s12977-015-0148-6 (2015). [PDF] [PubMed Link]